So let us first understand what is diabetes and the types.
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of varying forms and degrees that has the common characteristic of hyperglycaemia . Its underlying metabolic disorder involves all three of the energy yielding nutrients and influences energy balance. The major controlling hormone involved is insulin from the pancreas and people with diabetes have either a lack of insulin or a resistance to its action.
*Type 1 diabetes affects approx 5% to 10% of all people with diabetes. It usually presents itself first during childhood and it is more severe and unstable. The treatment of type 1 diabetes involves regular meals and snacks that are balanced with insulin and exercise. The self monitoring of blood glucose levels is a critical part of disease management.
*Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly among adults, especially those who are overweight. Treatment involves weight reduction and maintainance along with regular exercise. Oral hypoglycaemic medications or insulin may be needed.
A significant keystone of care for all forms of diabetes is sound diet therapy. The basic food plan should be rich in complex carbs and dietary fibre, low in simple sugars , fats especially saturated fats and cholesterol and moderate in protein. Food should be distributed throughout the day in fairly regular amounts and at regular times and it should be tailored to meet individual needs.
Some of the diet strategies for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are:
Decrease energy intake i.e the kilocalories if the person is overweight
Increase frequency and number of meals
Have regular daily intake of kcal from carbs, protein and fat.
Plan regular times for meals and snacks
During illness, use small and frequent feedings of carbs to prevent starvation and ketoacidosis.
Management of diabetes
Carbs: A dietary pattern that includes carbs from fruits, vegetables , whole grains, legumes and low fat milk is encouraged for good health.
Fat: limit saturated fat to less than 7% of total calories.Limit dietary cholesterol to less than 200mg/day. Two or more servings of fish per week provide omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are recommended.
Protein: high protein diets and not recommended as a method for weight loss.
Alcohol: Daily intake should be limited to a moderate amount i.e. one drink or less per day for women and 2 drinks or less per day for men.
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